Sierra Leone is bounded on the north-west, north and north-east by the Republic Guinea, on the south-east by the Republic of Liberia and on south-west by the Atlantic Ocean. It has an region of 27,925 square miles. The colony of Sierra Leone originated in the sale and cession in 1787 by indigenous chiefs to English settlers of a piece of land supposed as a house for African settlers who ended up waifs in London and later on it was utilised as a settlement for freed African slaves. The hinterland was declared a British Protectorate on 21st August, 1896. Sierra Leone attained independence on twenty seventh April, 1961 and turned a Republic in 1971. Schooling is supplied by each non-public and point out-sponsored educational institutions. The current technique of education and learning is 6-three-four-four (that is 6 a long time Major university, 3 years Junior Secondary University, 4 several years Senior Secondary Faculty and four several years tertiary/greater training. This program is complemented by non- official education.
Concept OF Training
Education is often utilised in the feeling of instruction in the classroom, laboratory, workshop or domestic science place and is made up principally in the imparting by the instructor, and the acquisition by pupils, of data and psychological as effectively as manual abilities. A wider indicating than instruction is that of schooling. That is to say all that goes on in the school as part of the pupil’s daily life there. It contains, amid other issues, relationship between pupils and teachers, pupils and pupils equally in and exterior the faculty. J. S. Mill (1931) opined that whatever will help to shape the human being to make the specific what he is or hinder him from getting what he is not is element of his schooling. Implicitly education is lifelong and ubiquitous it is the sum complete of all influences which go to make a individual what he is, from start to dying. It includes the house, our neighbors, and the road amid others.
Training is to some extent a deliberate planned approach devised and conducted by the educator with the function of imbuing the learner with specified information, capabilities, of thoughts and human body as properly as modes of habits deemed fascinating. In portion it is the learner’s very own reaction to the surroundings in which he lives. Training has 3 focal points: the person/person upon whom the educator’s influences are brought to bear the society or community to which he belongs and the complete context of fact within which the specific and modern society play their part. Guy is a social creature he grows as a particular person by way of the impact of character on personality and even for his simple bodily demands he relies upon on the aid and cooperation of his fellow gentlemen and girls. With out culture and the mutual support and enrichment of experiences which it offers civilization is unattainable and the existence of gentleman, in Hobbes’ words and phrases, is “solitary, poor, awful, brutish and short.”
A single of the elementary information of human existence is the rigidity in between the pull of the earlier and the ahead urge into the foreseeable future, in between steadiness and modify, custom and innovation. For successful dwelling,gentleman wants a circle of safety, an spot of established routines and partnership which varieties trustworthy interactions. This is also true of society. For its effective working there need to be an fundamental continuity of traditions and outlook which preserves its id as a culture and safeguards it from the disruptive outcomes of change. Change need to be for daily life and not static but this adjust in turn need to be managed by the simple traditions of culture. It is tradition which presents a nation its character and distinctiveness as a culture. The conservation of custom therefore is clearly essential.
It has been recognized from time immemorial that the conservation of traditional schooling has a crucial part to play in the development of the child. The youngsters of nowadays are the adults of tomorrow they have to be qualified consequently, to inherit and perpetuate the beliefs and modes of lifestyle peculiar to the specific modern society to which they belong. For every single culture has the want to preserve alone not only bodily but as local community consciously sharing specific aims, beliefs and patterns of habits. This variety of education and learning is not automatically official in schools by indicates of classroom instruction but that effected indirectly by way of the household and by way of the influence on the person of social influences and customs which the child cannot evade. In Sierra Leone this social training incorporated elaborate ceremonies of initiation involving feats of stamina in which younger males and girls have to prove themselves deserving of the neighborhood. The ultimate purpose was to generate an specific who was trustworthy, respectful, experienced, cooperative, and who could conform to the social purchase of the day. As Aristotle after said “the constitution of a condition will experience if education and learning is neglected. The citizens of a condition ought to always be educated to go well with the constitution of the state. The kind of character acceptable to a constitution is the electrical power which continues to maintain it as it is also the state drive which initially designed it” (p. I).
Classic Education and learning IN Culture
Classic schooling has both a imaginative and conservation perform in society it is a powerful signifies of preserving a society’s customs, if not lifestyle. In the previous the mother nature and wants of culture played a vital element in determining the character of education and learning. Professor M.V.C. Jeffreys (1950) after wrote in his guide, Glaucon, that “in a tranquil modern society the instructional method will are inclined to mirror the social sample, even though social uneasiness and instability generate opportunity for using schooling as an instrument of social adjust”(p.7). A related see was shared by John Dewey (1897) who opined that by means of training modern society can formulate its very own needs, can organize its possess indicates and sources and as a result help save alone with definiteness and economic climate in the route in which it needs to move. Education and learning appears both to the previous and the long term inevitably it demonstrates the traditions and character of modern society. Traditional schooling can be utilised to prepare for alterations in society and anticipate and prevent alterations or the outcomes of changes in society.
Conventional education and learning conserves and fingers on the customs and ways of life which represent the character of a modern society and maintains its unity. It also assists culture to interpret its functions in new ways to meet the difficulties of alter, searching for techniques or strains of advancement which are consistent with the traditions and customs and will at the identical time increase society to a much more full achievement of itself.
Standard Educational Establishments IN SIERRA LEONE
Heritage reveals that there have been no formal faculties the place kids have been educated in Pre-colonial Sierra Leone. The Poro and Bondo/Sande Mystery Societies ended up looked on as establishments to teach children. They have been bush colleges. And the education and learning these bush schools presented was informal. Youngsters who went by means of these secret societies ended up regarded as able of carrying out their civic tasks. They turned older people and can marry and start existence. They regarded as by themselves as one particular family members. In other terms both Mystery Societies created a perception of comradeship and unity amid associates irrespective of family members, clan or ethnic affiliation. It was as a result deemed that young children who had not long gone through these mystery societies ended up not totally matured.
The Poro Mystery Society is for boys. The religious head of the Poro Modern society is Pa Gbonu, observed only by the older graduates or customers. The actual physical heads are the Pa Sama Yorgbors and Pa Somanos. They direct the routines of the institution. The senior instructors are the Pa Kashis, who typically instruct and give guidelines to other initiators. The Pa Manchiyas provide as academics to the initiates whilst the Kachemas are the scaring spirits. They scare the females and young children alike with each other with the new initiates. The Rakas are the errand boys carrying messages all around. The Yambas are the head boys. The Bomos are the senior prefects while the Sayboms are the prefects and the screens are the Gbanaboms. Informal lessons are held in the Key Poro Bush. The subjects taught consist of Innovative Practical Arts, Doing Arts, Useful Agriculture, Drugs i.e. use of nearby herbs for the treatment of various illnesses), warfare and other abilities. In Imaginative Sensible Arts initiates are taught how to make fishing nets, baskets, mats, and carving wooden and cleaning soap stones into diverse objects these kinds of as animals and human beings in Performing Arts initiates are taught singing, dancing and the use of Poro musical devices. In Sensible Agriculture initiates exercise farming. Boys are taught to bear hardship without having grievance and develop accustomed to it. Therefore they are taken to the farms of their lecturers and elders to function on pro bono foundation. However throughout the harvest season initiates could go via these farms taking whatever they require and eat with no getting questioned by farm owners. Initiates are taught to respect elders and use of guns to destroy animals. In a comparable vein initiates are taught how to use guns in preventing in protection of their communities. Other expertise initiates are taught include generating fish traps, fishing and looking internet, and basketry. In the use of herbs initiates pay income (some freely presented) for therapeutic numerous sicknesses as well as for security from enemies, evil spirits and snake bites. Initiates who want to result in damage to other individuals using herbs could ‘redeem’ the herb/drugs involved. In excess of all initiates are taught a new Language spoken only by users known as Ke Sornor. For case in point fonka trika which means I am speaking to you fonka bonomi that means Speak to me. The use of this new Language helps make graduates quite happy and truly feel different from non-initiates. Graduates come out with new names such as Lamp, Langba and Kolerr. A graduation ceremony climaxes the celebration.
Dad and mom make massive preparations such as stitching attire for the graduates. To mark the graduation ceremony there is feasting, ingesting, dancing and singing praise tunes for the graduates and their parents. People qualified for initiation have to have been circumcised and developed to age of puberty. They have to live on their very own in the course of the time period of education which ranges from a single to 7 many years. Graduates are entirely admitted to the standard Poro society through one more ceremony known as Enkorie, which lasts for 4 times.
The Bondo/Sande Modern society is the institution the place girls are skilled for womanhood. Its non secular head is Na Bondigba. The Na Gboyamas and Na Wulus are the physical heads. These have spiritual powers employed to foretell the future and capture witches. They are the senior teachers. The Na Sokos are the support teachers. They can initiate women even up to the innovative stage of the Modern society. The Digbas are the general teachers and keep shut to the initiates. The Sampas are the skillful dancers and errand women/girls. They make announcements about the development and routines or packages for the duration of the graduation ceremony.
The Na Fets, as the identify indicates do not know all the secrecy of the establishment. They have the institutional implements and regalia. The Karr Ayeamus are the ‘waiters’ to be initiated into the greater position of the institution. Girls admitted to the Bondo/Sande Modern society are educated informally. Lessons are held at Kantha or sacred house. The academics are mainly anxious with the transmission to these adolescent girls the capabilities and understanding which grownup females are envisioned to have in order to perform properly and intelligently in their group. The topics girls are taught contain Cooking, Performing Arts, Fishing, Spouse and Little one Treatment, and Home Management. In Cooking women are taught how to get ready foods via observation and participation in the preparing of different dishes and are afterwards authorized to have a go with tiny or no supervision. These who could not cook dinner effectively are authorized to repeat. In Carrying out Arts girls are taught how to compose and sing songs and how to beat the Bondo/Sande drums (sambories). Along with singing girls are taught how to dance and these who dance properly could be part of the hierarchy of the Sampas. Women are also taught how to fishing, make fishing nets, fishing baskets, sleeping mats from bamboo and palm leaves. Even more ladies are taught how to aid their potential husbands and how to consider care of youngsters especially people of senior associates. Like the Poro Modern society graduation ceremonies are marked by substantial preparations. Both parents and future husbands would acquire new dresses, slippers, perfumes, powder, and beads to make neck laces. On the working day of the graduation ceremony the new initiates are arrayed in white with coronets. They occur out with new names this kind of as Burah, Yeanor, Rukor and Yainkain. This demonstrates a sign of maturity. Initiating ladies into Bondo/Sande society lasts amongst a couple of months and three a long time.
If schooling has the essential function of perpetuating the traditions and values of society, of adapting them to a shifting setting, and of elevating them to richer and far more fruitful expression then equally the Poro and Bondo/Sande Secret Societies, as standard brokers of this process need to get pleasure from a position of the maximum esteem. By way of these magic formula societies the nation’s lifestyle flows from one particular generation to the other and the aspirations of society are concentrated with personal and telling persuasion upon the young. They stand at a position exactly where the energies of youngsters are launched into new and creative prospects. Via these mystery societies young children keep in mind the past routines of their predecessors. They aid in behavioral education designs of society. These societies are establishments of inspiration and equally politicians and chiefs use them to benefit. That is to either obtain or maintain electrical power. Main and binding conclusions are taken in the Poro Bush of which only associates are allowed to attend and consider portion. The Poro Key Society functions as a check from the abuse of power. In crisis ridden circumstances key choice are taken in the Poro Bush. The Poro society even acts as arbitrator in chiefdom disputes and could promulgate general regulations and regulate trading techniques. It is also included in the burial of chiefs and other crucial neighborhood officials (Alie, 1990).
Western schooling has existed in the nation for long and is now so integral element of the civilized life that there is a inclination to presume that it is the principal or sole indicates of imparting expertise, knowledge and social values in young children. This is not the circumstance in Sierra Leone. The significance of the Poro and Bondo classic secret societies cannot be over-sighted since of their massive potentiality in educating youngsters for daily life in society. Elementary is that respect for folks as folks is the foundation of standard modern society. Connected with this is courtesy, sensitivity to the requirements of other individuals, cooperativeness, self-discipline, ethical and bodily courage, difficult operate and substantial standards of accomplishment. These are passed on to young children in the surroundings in which they are part of their everyday encounters. Notwithstanding, these standard institutions as brokers of education are at the moment confronted with a lot of challenges there-by forcing their demise. The practice of woman genital circumcision is of intercontinental worry and in Sierra Leone men and women are agitating for its total ban. At present ladies are authorized to be circumcised at age eighteen for the duration of which time a child is perceived to be matured ample to pick whether or not to be initiated into the Bondo/Sande mystery culture. In addition the period of time of initiation is perceived as well long and is being challenged. Besides youngsters these times no longer have to be initiated into these societies to be taught how to be clear, cook, rear kids, exercise agriculture, and inculcate morals and virtues to cite a few illustrations. All these could be learnt both in or outdoors official education by way of studying. What is much more Faith, specially Christianity and Islam, western existence, as well as rural-urban migration are forcing these mystery societies to obliteration.
Aside from the pursuits and work of these traditional societies are not in curriculum type and documented. Neither also is the use of herbs documented. Consequently by discontinuing these classic mystery societies Sierra Leoneans stand to drop their cultural heritage. If however, education and learning has the crucial purpose of perpetuating the traditions and values of society, of adapting them to a modifying surroundings, and of boosting them to a richer and more fruitful expression then these standard magic formula societies, as agents of this method must enjoy a place of the highest esteem. Via these societies the national tradition flows from a single era to an additional and the aspirations of modern society are centered with intimate and telling persuasion upon the younger. These magic formula societies stand at the position exactly where the energies of youngsters are released into new and inventive prospects.